I have some of the same questions. I have a 2016 Passat which I purchased new near the end of 2016. The maps were already quite out-of-date then. I recently checked with my dealer and was told VW US makes new maps available every two years and they generally come out in the first quarter of that year. He had no idea when the next one would be out. Very frustrating, especially knowing the update may cost well over $100. I'm inclined to forget about updating and update my cell phone data plan and rely on Apple Carplay fulltime.